Internal combustion engines are known to have low efficiency. This is because most …

In mechanics we deal with two types of quantities (variables): scalar and vector …

## How to calculate the resultant force acting on an object

In most of the practical applications, related to trigonometry, we need to calculate …

## Law of sines and cosines

In engineering, simulations play a critical part in the design phase of any …

## Vehicle acceleration and maximum speed modeling and simulation

Any body is characterized by its mass. Because the mass of different particles …

## The mole and Avogadro’s number

Thermal expansion is a physical property of a substance (gas, liquid or solid) …

## How to calculate thermal expansion

The drivetrain (also called driveline) is the sum of components which are delivering …

## Drivetrain losses (efficiency)

Wheel torque can be calculated function of engine torque if the parameters and …

## How to calculate wheel torque from engine torque

The basic vehicle dynamics parameters calculations, like wheel torque or wheel speed, are …

## How to calculate wheel radius

In this article we are going to go through the most common powertrain …

## Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) – control functions

In this article we are going to use Scilab to perform logic operations …

## Logic gates and bitwise operations with Scilab

Logic operations also known as Boolean functions, part of Boolean algebra, are widely used in computer science, …

## Logical operations and boolean functions

Thermal engines use fuel and oxygen (from air) to produce energy through combustion. …

## Air-fuel ratio, lambda and engine performance

In this article (tutorial) we are going to discuss about the electrical architecture …

## Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) – electrical architecture

For a thermal engine, the combustion process depends on the air-fuel ratio inside …

## How to calculate the volumetric efficiency of an internal combustion engine

In control applications, embedded software and electronics, timers are widely used for events …

## Xcos tutorial – Modeling and simulation of a counter/timer

The vast majority of vehicles in use nowdays are OBD compliant, which means …

## On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) – introduction to the Modes of Operation (Diagnostic Services)

Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is a parameter that reflects the efficiency of …

## Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC)

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