A system can be defined by a model, real (scale model) or virtual …

A vehicle with conventional powertrain is using an internal combustion engine (gasoline or …

## Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles (MHEV) – examples

The fuel consumption of a vehicle is directly linked with its CO2 emissions. …

## Real world fuel consumption

In an industrial plant, a closed-loop control system has the role of keeping …

## On-off control system

Depending on the complexity of the control system, the block diagram can be …

## Transfer function algebra

Electric vehicles are using electric machines for propulsion and energy recuperation. An electric …

## EV design – electric motors

In every engineering domain using mathematical modeling and simulations brings several benefits during …

## EV design – battery simulation

The high voltage battery it is one of the most important component of …

## EV design – battery calculation

The high voltage battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is one of the …

## EV design – energy consumption

Vehicle design is a very complex domain since it involves a lot of …

## EV design – introduction

In mathematics there are several types of ordinary differential equations (ODE), like linear, …

## Euler integration method for solving differential equations

Advantages of electric vehicles compared to internal combustion engine vehicles Pure electric vehicles, …

## Advantages of electric vehicles

In the automotive industry, the Research and Development (R&D) of new powertrain systems …

## What drives forward R&D for passenger vehicles and powertrain systems?

Linear functions are the simplest algebraic functions. They have an important property which …

## The principle of superposition

In a passenger vehicle, the role of a transmission is to adapt the …

## Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)

In a vehicle fitted with a manual transmission (MT), the clutch engagement and …

## Electronic clutch control

Turbocharging is the most common used technology in internal combustion engines for forced intake …

## Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT)

In an internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicle, the engine is connected to …

## Clutch actuation system

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