Table of Contents Introduction OSI Model Data Encapsulation 7 – Application Layer 6 …

Table of Contents Introduction ICEV powertrain Engine Transmission Transfer case Propeller shaft Differential …

## Powertrain vs. Drivetrain

Table of Contents Definition Main Parameters Example Equations Curves Calculation Summary Definition A …

## Electric Vehicle Motor Torque and Power Curves

Table of Contents Introduction Impact of battery pack resistance on performance Battery cell …

## How to calculate the internal resistance of a battery pack

Table of Contents Battery cell discharge characteristic Discharge curves generation process Challenges of …

## Analytical solution for battery cell discharge characteristic

Table of Contents Introduction Equation System response Example Tuning Conclusions References Introduction A …

## Proportional (P) controller

Table of Contents Introduction Battery cell C-rate Battery cell discharge characteristic Battery cell …

## How to calculate the internal resistance of a battery cell

Table of Contents Introduction Active power Reactive power Summary References Introduction In alternating …

## Active vs Reactive Power

Table of Contents Definition Formula Road slope Example Calculator References Definition The road …

## How to calculate road slope (gradient) force

Table of Contents Definition Formula Drag coefficient Frontal area Aerodynamic drag force Aerodynamic …

## How to calculate aerodynamic drag force

Table of Contents Definition Formula Rolling resistance coefficient Models for rolling resistance coefficient …

## How to calculate rolling resistance

Table of Contents Definition Driven (pushed) wheels Driving (traction) wheels Pulled wheels Motor …

## How to calculate wheel curb climbing torque

Table of Contents Definition Formula Electric potential energy of two charges Electric potential …

## How to calculate electric potential energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Example Calculator References Definition Gravitational potential energy refers …

## How to calculate gravitational potential energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Ni-MH battery cell example Tesla battery pack example …

## How to calculate battery energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Example using voltage and charge Example using power …

## How to calculate electric energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Example Calculator References Definition Internal energy is the …

## How to calculate internal energy

Table of Contents Definition Wind energy formula Wind turbine energy formula Example Calculator …

## How to calculate wind energy and wind turbine energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Periodic wave example Random wave example Calculator References …

## How to calculate wave energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Example Calculator References Definition Hydraulic energy is the …

## How to calculate hydraulic energy

Table of Contents Definition Formula Wheel example Flywheel example Calculator References Definition Any …

## How to calculate rotational kinetic energy

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