Turbocharging is the most commonly used supercharging technology by internal combustion engines (ICE) …

Vehicles fitted with manual transmissions (MT), automated manual transmissions (AMT) and double clutch …

## Gear synchro

The performance of an internal combustion engine (ICE) can be described through its …

## How turbochargers work

The vast majority of vehicles sold today are powered by internal combustion engines …

## Why do we need gears

In order to produce mechanical power, an internal combustion engine (ICE) needs fuel …

## How turbocharging works

Internal combustion engines produce mechanical work (power) by burning fuel. During the combustion …

## Fuel conversion efficiency

A mathematical curve can be defined as a function y = f(x), where …

## How to plot parametric equations with Scilab

Mathematical modeling and simulation bring significant benefits in terms of understanding the braking …

## Anti-lock braking system (ABS) modeling and simulation (Xcos)

Internal combustion engines are known to have low efficiency. This is because most …

## Mechanical efficiency and friction mean effective pressure (FMEP)

Table of Contents Introduction Definition Diagram Formula Examples Resultant force of multiple forces …

## Resultant force

In most of the practical applications, related to trigonometry, we need to calculate …

## Law of sines and cosines

In engineering, simulations play a critical part in the design phase of any …

## Vehicle acceleration and maximum speed modeling and simulation

Any body is characterized by its mass. Because the mass of different particles …

## The mole and Avogadro’s number

Thermal expansion is a physical property of a substance (gas, liquid or solid) …

## How to calculate thermal expansion

The drivetrain (also called driveline) is the sum of components which are delivering …

## Drivetrain losses (efficiency)

Wheel torque can be calculated function of engine torque if the parameters and …

## How to calculate wheel torque from engine torque

The basic vehicle dynamics parameters calculations, like wheel torque or wheel speed, are …

## How to calculate wheel radius

In this article we are going to go through the most common powertrain …

## Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) – control functions

In this article we are going to use Scilab to perform logic operations …

## Logic gates and bitwise operations with Scilab

Logic operations also known as Boolean functions, part of Boolean algebra, are widely used in computer science, …

## Logical operations and boolean functions

Table of Contents Air fuel ratio definition Air fuel ratio formula Air fuel …

## Air fuel ratio

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